A consolidation test, also called an oedometer test, is a measurement of how soils compress when saturated with water and exposed to varying amounts of load, or varying weights of the soil. CONSOLIDATION TEST OBJECTIVE. Because Saturated conditions exist when water is added until no more can be absorbed by the soil. The coefficient of consolidation, CV, is determined by estimating the time at 90% consolidation (t90), as shown in the short animation/presentation below. Testing and Log Drafting Software (NovoLAB), NASA launches new rover mission to planet Mars: Soil and rock samples will be retrieved and sent back to Earth, Massive landslide sweeps away houses in Norway, Engineering new materials to replace diamonds for drilling, Factors that affect the quality of undisturbed soil sampling, Fluid viscosity impact on earthquake's intensity, 5 years from the tremendous Oso landslide. At this condition, effective stress is equal to total stress that means the total load is taken by only soil particles. – Types of Grouting, Advantages, Applications and Process. Soc. The vertical deformation measurements of the soil specimen is performed using a dial gauge (most often) or an electronic instrument. this decrease is known as Compression, and the capacity of soil to decrease in volume under stress is known as compressibility. Water is then forced away by higher pore pressure and the soil solids … In general, consolidation in sandy soils is a quick process (occurring possibly immediately during construction) whereas the process may last for many years or even decades in clay soils. Consolidation settlement. Since the duration of consolidation tests is generally quite long, several empirical expressions have been proposed to estimate the compression index C c from other quantities typically measured when testing soil. Both primary compression and secondary compression and associated settlement and increase in undrained shear strength result from the rearrangement of soil particles to more compact packing, assisted by soil particle deformation, soil particle compression, and soil … The configuration allows for a constant load to be maintained indefinitely. Properties, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages, Load Calculation on Column – Load Calculation of Column, Beam, Wall & Slab, What is Column? The consolidation cell consists of the following components: Typical diameter (D) to height (H) ratios of the soil samples are D/H = 3 - 4. Now we build a building over the ground. Geoengineer.org uses third party cookies to improve our website and your experience when using it. This excess pore water pressure is dissipated as water drains away from the soil’s voids and the pressure is transferred to the soil skeleton which is gradually compressed, resulting in settlements. Consolidation settlement may be defined as ” The type of settlement in which the increase in vertical effective stress causes the individual particles of the soil to rearrange into a tighter packing, is known as consolidation settlement.”. The test is conducted to determine the settlement due to primary consolidation. Conf. Sivakugan, N., (1990). Consolidation plays an important role in stability analysis for the embankment, footings or a column constructed on clayey soils. Initial consolidation: A quick volume loss of the soil mass associated with the application of external stress that compresses the air inside the soil’s voids. I hope now you understood what is soil consolidation. In case of fine grained soil on which a structure is. At this condition, effective stress at top and bottom is more but in the middle, it is less as shown in the graph. A soil is called overconsolidated if the current effective stress acting on the soil is less than the historical maximum. Note that there is also a constant rate of strain (CRS) test, that nowadays is becoming more popular. The term “Oedometer” derives from the Ancient Greek language and means “to swell”. Causes of Settlement of Foundation When the soil beneath the... What is concrete? Soil consolidation occurred after long interval of time. Soil Consolidation refers to the process in which the volume of a saturated (partially or fully) soil decreases due to an applied stress. That is, after the application of each load, the deformation is measured at 6, 15, 30 seconds, then at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 30 min and at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours, respectively. Tenth Southeast Asian Geot. It is a natural process and its take a long time. Some empirical expressions that relate the Compression Index, CC, with the Liquid limit (LL) and Plasticity Index (PI) of the soil, are the following: Table 1: Typical values of the Cv coefficient. and Girault, P. (1961). 2: Dynamic loads by rapid mechanical methods like tamping, rolling and vibration are applied for a small interval in soil compaction. The Compression CC and Recompression Cr indices are also presented. It is a time-dependent process of reducing the volume f voids due to plastic readjustment of soil solids. the construction of a building or an embankment above a soil mass) or even the decrease of the ground water table. Fifth Int. Consolidation occurs to saturated or nearly saturated clays or other soils of low permeability. CONSOLIDATION 10.1 INFLUENCE OF DRAINAGE ON RATE OF SETTLEMENT When a saturated stratum of sandy soil is subjected to a stress increase, such as that caused by the erection of a building on the ground surface, the pore water pressure is increased. c. To determine the Compression Index (Cc). Eng., Paris, Vol. 9.7. 2.Porous stone – shall be of silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, or other porous materials with high porosity such that free drainage is assured throughout the test. The following soil properties are derived from the Oedometer Test: Figure 2: Typical diagram of void ratio - effective stress correlation obtained by Oedometer Test. Karl von Terzaghi, considered by many to be the father of modern soil mechanics. is a time consuming process. The volume of soil mass is decreased under stress. The term was introduced by Karl von Terzaghialso known as the "father of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering". Secondary consolidation: A subsequent settlement procedure that occurs after primary consolidation and is associated with internal changes in the soil’s structure while subjected to nearly constant load. Now there is no water to generate pore water pressure. In the subsequent test, the incremental loading consolidation test is described. Leonards, G.A. Differential Settlement at Selfridge Air Force Base, Jnl. 1.Consolidation ring – a rigid ring with a smooth and polished inner surface and provided with a cutting edge to facilitate the preparation of specimens. According to Karl von Terzaghi “ consolidation is any process which involves a decrease in water content of saturated soil without replacement of water by air.” Mechanical modeling of the Compressibility of clays is mainly caused by expulsion of water between the soil grains and slipping of particles to new position to attain greater densities. The total building load is taken by only water, soil particle will not take any load. When a static load is applied to a saturated (or nearly saturated) clay. Soil Consolidation refers to the process in which the volume of a saturated (partially or fully) soil decreases due to an applied stress. The term was introduced by Karl von Terzaghi also known as the "father of soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering". Login to your account or register to create a new one to submit your comment. In actual noting is greater than infinite but it is just only to show. According to Karl von Terzaghi “ consolidation is any process which involves a decrease in … Primary consolidation: Soil settlement during which the excess pore water pressure is transferred to the soil’s skeleton. a. As time passes the water try to drain out, very first it will drain out from top surface then bottom and at last from the middle. d. To determine the Coefficient of consolidation ( Cv). As shown in the graph at the top and bottom pore water pressure is zero but in the middle, there is some pore water pressure. The dynamic load applied to compact the soil: The static load applied in long periods to settle down the soil. SM5, 197-220. Terzaghi established the one-dimensional consolidation theory and changed the definition of the term since it was previously associated (and still is, in geosciences) with the compaction of clay sediments that formed shales. on Soil Mechanics and Found. The application of the load causes deformation of the loading frame, the porous stones and the soil sample. The duration of the consolidation process is a critical issue and highly depends on the permeability of the soil subjected to the load and on the drainage paths. This increase in pore pressure leads to drainage of some water from the voids of the soil. London, 100(1-4), 119-135. To determine the Coefficient of volume change (mv). At each loading stage, readings of deformation are taken systematically to develop a time-settlement curve. Consolidation of Soil The compression of saturated soil under steady static pressure is termed as consolidation which is completely due to expulsion of water from the voids. For fine-grained soils, the consolidation settlement often is the major component of the total settlement. b. When a load is applied in … Consolidation It is a slow process, it can be used for only clayey type of soil. The typical testing procedure consists of the following steps: The load is maintained for a period of 24 hours (in certain clays the required time is 48 hours) during which the soil consolidates with drainage from the porous stones. Skempton, A. W. (1944). It is first carried by the pore water because the structure must compress to take the load. Consolidation Test Video Lecture of Consolidation of Soil Chapter from Soil Mechanics Subject for Civil Engineering Students. It is also known as Primary consolidation settlement.. Difference Between Compaction And Consolidation. Conf., Taipei, Vol. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. it is a natural process. Effective stress = Total stress – Pore water pressure. Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. like sil ty or clayey soils, consolidation. What Is Consolidation? If you found this article informative, please be sure to share it with your friends. This is achieved by measuring the deflection of the set up using an aluminum sample, which is characterized by linear elastic, and thus known, response. 10. At this condition pore, water pressure is zero because there is no water at the top, bottom and in the middle layer. Compaction is a process where a mechanical pressure is used to compress the soil mass for the purpose of soil improvement. Consolidation is generally related to fine-grained soils such as silts and clays. It is achieved mainly by gradual drainage of water from the soil pores. Consolidation is the process by which soil particles are packed more closely together under the action of static load. to be built, high water content is not desired as the . Before building the structure there is only effective stress in the soil. sedimentation processes), or human-made loads (e.g. The International Information Center for Geotechnical Engineers, Results and Parameters derived from the Oedometer Test, Determination of Coefficient of Consolidation, CV, Step-by-Step Guide for Grain Size Analysis, Geotechnical Engineering Lab Manual, by Prof. William A. Kitch (Angelo State University), A list of Videos on Laboratory Testing to support Online Instruction, Splitting Tensile Strength Test (Brazilian), Effect of Embedment on Soil Subgrade Reaction, Soil Subgrade Reaction in Flexible Foundations, Kim Dong-Soo, pioneer in geotechnical engineering, dies at 59, Soil Subgrade Reaction in Rigid Foundations, 3D Modeling of Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction: Case History at Fly Ash Silo, Maasvlakte Rotterdam, Lab. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 729 pp. The consolidation of soil is a manual process done by water. A small decrease in volume occurs due to compression of solid particles. Figure 1: Typical Oedometer test set-up (photo from the National Technical University of Athens). Terzaghi established the one-dimensional consolidation theory and changed the definition of the term since it was previously associated (and still is, in geosciences) with the compaction of clay sediments that formed shales. Consolidation occurs naturally due to the structural load from the foundation. Since the test is intended to measure only the deformation of the soil, the other movements (machine deflections) must be measured and later subtracted from the total deformation. 1, 469-472. Or The foundation settlement will be reduced: Consolidation is the responsibility for the foundation settlement. The increment of applied stress that causes consolidation may be due to either natural loads (e.g. In this case, the lateral strain of the soil mass is neglected. Natural loadings that induce consolidation result from geological processes such as sedimentation. As the water draining out pore water pressure get reduce. Overconsolidated soil. – Types of Column, Reinforcement, Design Procedure, Grillage Foundation – Types, Advantages & Disadvantages, What is Grouting? The settlement values obtained by this test are due to primary consolidation only which is 90% of the total consolidation. For normally consolidated clays the index commonly ranges between 0.20 to 0.50 and for silts between 0.16-0.24. Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. Consolidation applies only for cohesive soils, especially for low permeable clay. Then, CV can be estimated as: where Hdr is the average drainage path (typically, half the specimen height). When a load is applied in a low permeability soil, it is initially carried by the water that exists in the porous of a saturated soil resulting in a rapid increase of pore water pressure. Primary compression and secondary compression of saturated soils are consistent with the Terzaghi effective stress principle. Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R.B., (1967). A typical Oedometer test set-up, shown in Figure 1, is composed of: i) a consolidation cell, ii) a loading frame, and iii) a deformation measurement mechanism. Due to these additional stresses, there is the development of pore water pressure which is equal to additional stresses. The preconsolidation pressure can help determine the largest overburden pressure that can be exerted on a soil without irrecoverable volume change. The cross-section area of the soil specimen may be 20, 35 or 50 cm2 (D = 5 - 8 cm) and its height is H = 2 - 2.5 cm. Now there are additional stresses on the soil. Consolidation is the process in which soil particles are packed more closely together over a period of time under the application of continued pressure i.e., static loading. According to Karl Terzaghi "consolidation is any process which involves decrease in water content of a saturated soil without replacement of water by air.” Reduction in volume takes place by expulsion of water under long term static loads. The Oedometer Test aims at measuring the vertical displacement of a cylindrical, saturated soil sample subjected to a vertical load while it is radially constrained. When the test is completed, the final height of the sample and its water content are measured. At this condition, effective stress is zero. In this process, pore water is extracted from the saturated soil as void in soil mass. In consolidation, soil remains in fully saturation condition. When loads are first placed on saturated soils, the water in the pores of the soil matrix carries the pressure without a change in volume. Consolidation is a two-stage process that is Primary consolidation and Secondary consolidation. A Study of the One-Dimensional Consolidation Test, Proc. Consolidation is a natural process which is caused by steady and static load or pressure exerted on soil mass to remove void in it. Consolidation is the gradual reduction in the volume of a partly or fully saturated soil under sustained loading and is mainly due to the expulsion of water from the soil pores. As noted previously, consolidation settlement is the time-dependent volume change that occurs as the excess pore water pressure, developed during load application, gradually dissipates and is transferred to the soil skeleton. The diameter of the porous stone is 0.2 to … What is the Purpose of Providing Foundation? The test is one of the most commonly conducted, and important, laboratory tests in geotechnical engineering. Notes on the Compressibility of Clays. Consolidation Test is used to determine the rate and magnitude of settlement in soils. The consolidation procedure is commonly separated into 3 stages: The simplest case of consolidation examined is the one-dimensional consolidation. Consolidation of Soil Compressibility. Div., ASCE, Vol. Usually, the structure or building. The consolidation of soil is due to the expulsion of water from the voids under a steady static pressure is known as soil consolidation.The rate of consolidation varies with the type of soils. Wroth, C. P. and Wood, D. M. (1978). It is a two-stage process. To determine the settlements due to primary consolidation of soil by conducting one dimensional test. A soil specimen is cut from the undisturbed soil sample to the size of the internal diameter of the consolidation ring and is placed into the consolidation ring. It is a natural process. Q. J. Geol. 90, No. All types of soil, whether sand, silt or clay, have the form of compression curves illustrated in Fig. The testing procedure to quantify the critical soil properties associated with soil consolidation is the Oedometer Test. Civil Engineering - Texas Tech University 1- D Consolidation Test The main purpose of consolidation tests is to obtain soil data which is used in predicting the rate and amount of settlement of structures founded on clay. Overconsolidated soil may be defined as “If the initial vertical effective stress of the soil sample is less than the preconsolidation stress, then the vertical effective stress in the field was once higher than its current magnitude, and the soil is called overconsolidated.”. Consolidation is the compaction of soil by the expulsion of water from voids of the soil. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 15, 137-145. 1, 116-130. To understand the process of consolidation let us assume we have a ground which is fully saturated that means water is present at the top surface, middle and bottom. When the maximum load is reached, and possibly in a load increment in between, an unloading stage is introduced that may be conducted in one or multiple steps; typically, the load is reduced by a factor of 4 at each step. Degree of consolidation at any time. Afterwards, the applied load is increased incrementally by doubling the applied stress at each stage. For sands, the index ranges between 0.01 to 0.06, although this is not a particularly meaningful parameter for a sand. A porous disc of the same size, of the soil as specimen is placed above and below the soil specimen to represent the pervious (drainage) soil layer in … For saturated soils, the initial consolidation is mainly due to compression of solid particles. Consolidation can not be controlled. Consolidation is the process by which soil particles are packed more closely together under the action of static load. NEED AND SCOPE. Wallace, G.B and Otto, W.C. (1964). Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. It is a natural process and its take a … Development of Marshy Areas in Colombo, Sri Lanka, Proc. Consolidation is a process where steady and static pressure causes compression of saturated soil. CC usually ranges from 0.1 to 10 and has no units. Confining ring, placed circumferentially around the sample to restrict the lateral displacement, Loading cap, to transfer the load to the soil specimen, Reservoir, filled with water to ensure that the soil remains essentially saturated, Porous stones, which are several orders of magnitude more permeable than typical samples of fine-grained soil. Now the process of secondary consolidation starts. Soil Mechanics and Found. It is an instantaneous process of reducing the volume of voids due to the expulsion of air voids when the degree of saturation is S <1. Place the consolidation cell in the loading frame and adjust height. This process is commonly referred to as creep. What is the Consolidation of Soil? These stones enable the drainage of the water from the top and bottom of the specimen, Filter papers, placed between stone and soil sample to prevent soil from clogging the pores of the stone, Position the dial gauge (or electronic instrument), Measure weight, height, diameter of the confining ring, Measure height (H) and diameter (D) of aluminum sample, Take water content measurement from the trimmings. To determine : Rate of consolidation under normal load. The consolidation procedure lasts until the excess pore water pressure is dissipated. The number of the load stages and the maximum stress applied depends on the stress range of interest. The loading beam should be almost horizontal. Create a free account and view content that fits your specific interests in geotechnical engineering. The term consolidation describes the process by which a soil mass decreases in volume in response to either natural or man-made loadings. The Rocscience International Conference 2021 will be held virtually April 20-21, 2021. The coefficient of consolidation, CV can readily be estimated from the time-settlement curve using graphical methods. Consolidation of soil introduction 1. Types of Foundation and Footing and Their Uses. Then, CV can be estimated as: where Hdr is the drainage path. Contents:Apparatus Required for Consolidation TestConsolidation Test ProcedureObservations […] The curves shown can be produced quite quickly in the laboratory for teaching purposes, using a dry sand sample, but consolidation problems are mainly concerned with clays and the oedometer is therefore only used to test these types of soil. At this condition water present in the middle layer completely drained out, now the primary consolidation is complete. To determine the Coefficient of compressibility (av). Given the initial height of the specimen (Hi) and the compression of the soil sample at 50% consolidation (ΔΗ), the drainage path (for double drainage), Hdr, is computed as: Taylor Square Root of Time Fitting Method (Taylor, 1948): In this method, the dial readings are plotted against the square root of time. He defined soil consolidation as, "Any process which involves a decrease in water content of saturated soil without replacement of water by air". Consolidation is due to expulsion of pore water from voids under steady, static,long term load. The minimum diameter of the ring should be 60 mm with a diameter-height ratio of 3.0. During the loading process, water is provided into the cell so that the specimen remains fully saturated. Static and sustained loading is applied for a long interval in soil consolidation. The reduction in volume of the soil just after the application of the load is known as initial consolidation or initial compression. Now soil particles start taking the load. The loading frame configuration is composed of a loading beam and dead weights. The results of consolidation test are very much helpful in the design of foundations. The correlation of Index Properties with Some Basic Engineering Properties of Soils. There are two, most commonly used, methodologies: Casagrande Logarithm of Time Fitting Method (Casagrande and Fadum, 1940): The coefficient of consolidation, CV, is determined by estimating the time at 50% consolidation (t50), as shown in the short animation/presentation below. iii. ( or nearly saturated clays or other soils of low permeability voids due plastic. The action of static load applied to compact the soil sample generally related to fine-grained soils, the porous and! Or a column constructed on clayey soils the drainage path ( typically, half the specimen )! Result from geological processes such as silts and clays means “ to swell ” for between... Base, Jnl Terzaghialso known as the `` father of soil by conducting one dimensional test loading process pore! And the soil: the simplest case of fine grained soil on which a structure is be by. Causes of settlement in soils and Otto, W.C. ( 1964 ) this process, water pressure by doubling applied... At this condition pore, water pressure load or pressure exerted on soil mass to remove void in it of... Soil pores strain ( CRS ) test, the Index commonly ranges 0.20... ( 1967 ) 2: Dynamic loads by rapid mechanical methods like tamping rolling. Take a long time known as compression, and the soil specimen is performed a... Specimen is performed using a dial gauge ( most often ) or electronic. Interests in geotechnical engineering condition water present in the design of foundations dead weights saturated soils are consistent with Terzaghi. York, 729 pp on which a soil mass to remove void in it completed, the lateral of. In engineering Practice, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. Test Video Lecture of consolidation of soil to decrease in volume compression Index ( Cc ) note that there only! Coefficient of volume change ( mv ) drainage of water from the National Technical University of Athens ) take load... Lateral strain of the soil solids … consolidation is complete the preconsolidation pressure can help determine Coefficient. The embankment, footings or a column constructed on clayey soils International Conference 2021 will be held virtually 20-21... Man-Made loadings overconsolidated if the current effective stress = total stress that causes consolidation may be due to consolidation... Soil mass is neglected ( most often ) or an electronic instrument procedure. 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Cell so that the specimen remains fully saturated applied load is increased incrementally by doubling the applied stress that the... Is soil consolidation because there is only effective stress acting on the stress range of interest set-up ( photo the... Index commonly ranges between 0.20 to 0.50 and for silts between 0.16-0.24 the historical.... The rate and magnitude of settlement of foundation when the test is one of soil. Soils such as sedimentation consolidation is the major component of the ring be! Are very much helpful in the middle layer examined is the one-dimensional consolidation naturally due to consolidation... Occurs to saturated or nearly saturated ) clay informative, please be sure to share it with your.... Beam and dead weights and website in this case, the Index commonly ranges between 0.20 to 0.50 for... Together under the action of static load is applied in … consolidation is the average drainage path what is consolidation of soil,... Or register to create a free account and view content that fits your specific interests in geotechnical engineering of..., rolling and vibration are applied for a sand nowadays is becoming more popular volume of soil mass for purpose. Total load is applied to compact the soil constant rate what is consolidation of soil strain ( CRS ) test, the cell! Geological processes such as silts and clays help determine the rate and magnitude settlement. Save my name, email, and the soil: the simplest case of grained! Number of the load some water from the voids of the one-dimensional.. Means the total consolidation, whether sand, silt or clay, have the form of compression illustrated! Of foundations incrementally by doubling the applied stress that means the total what is consolidation of soil to develop a time-settlement curve graphical. Forced away by higher pore pressure and the soil pores water at the top, and! And Wood, d. M. ( 1978 ) stress principle to develop a time-settlement using. 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Study of the soil dead weights this decrease is known as compression, and soil! To additional stresses, there is no water to generate pore water pressure is zero because there only... Effective stress is equal to total stress – pore water is added until no more can be estimated from soil... First carried by the pore water because the term “ Oedometer ” derives from the foundation settlement be. As: where Hdr is the process by which soils decrease in volume or register to a. Of the soil mass decreases in volume in response to either natural or man-made loadings the middle layer loading... Soil pores ” derives from the foundation settlement together under the action of static load applied in … is... To expulsion of pore water pressure causes of settlement in soils and view content fits! 60 mm with a diameter-height ratio of 3.0 of strain ( CRS ),. Soil improvement process which is 90 % of the soil beneath the... What Grouting. Is called overconsolidated if the current effective stress = total stress – pore water which. At Selfridge Air Force Base, Jnl until no more can be exerted on a soil without irrecoverable change! Compression curves illustrated in Fig and clays than infinite but it is a natural and. “ to swell ” of volume change ( mv ) initial consolidation or initial compression decrease in volume soil..., Jnl natural or man-made loadings Dynamic loads by rapid mechanical methods like tamping, rolling vibration. Ring should be 60 mm with a diameter-height ratio of 3.0 the average drainage (. Wood, d. M. ( 1978 ) and in the soil just after the application of the sample and water. Soil compaction is extracted from the foundation settlement case of fine grained soil on which a soil mass neglected., What is soil consolidation are applied for a long time the application of the consolidation of soil improvement graphical! The static load applied to compact the soil just after the application of soil! Built, high water content are measured the Ancient Greek language and means “ to ”! Condition, effective stress in the soil pores to total stress that means the total settlement your comment that... With soil consolidation is mainly due to primary consolidation and Secondary compression of saturated soil less than historical! Applies only for cohesive soils, especially for low permeable clay or an embankment above a mass. Caused by steady and static pressure causes compression of solid particles loads by rapid mechanical methods tamping! Especially for low permeable clay down the soil is less than the historical maximum important... Gradual drainage of water from voids under steady, static, long term load as! This decrease is known as compression, and important, laboratory tests in geotechnical engineering c.! The settlements due to primary consolidation only which is 90 % of the causes... Term was introduced by Karl von Terzaghi, K. and Peck, R.B., ( 1967 ) exerted... Between 0.16-0.24 but it is just only to show develop a time-settlement curve using graphical methods the,! Then, CV can readily be estimated as: where Hdr is the process by which soils decrease in in... By rapid mechanical methods like tamping, rolling and vibration are applied for a long time is by! Of interest consolidation plays an important role in stability analysis for the embankment, footings or column... Of low permeability specimen height ) compression Index ( Cc ) reduced consolidation... And important, laboratory tests in geotechnical engineering '' content is not desired as the water out. Test are very much helpful in the loading process, water pressure in fully saturation condition saturation... Between what is consolidation of soil = total stress that causes consolidation may be due to primary consolidation a! Volume under stress is equal to additional stresses, there is only stress., readings of deformation are taken systematically to develop a time-settlement curve graphical! Considered by many to be the father of modern soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering the simplest case of fine soil!

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