The quota was intended to limit the number of migrants receiving benefits to a number that would not exceed government capacity. Barcus, Holly. From 2006-2009, we worked to assess the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. 2013. “Place Identity and Immobility Choices among Ethnic Minorities: Transitioning Landscapes in a Transnational Community”, Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Los Angeles, CA, April 2013. Las Vegas, Nevada. Aid & Tuition, Admitted  Estimates suggest that between 50-60,000 Mongolian Kazakhs emigrated from Mongolia to Kazakhstan in the early 1990’s with possibly 10,000-20,000 returning by the early 2000s. Groups at various levels in the tribal hierarchy had chiefs, but only rarely was the Kazakh nation, or even one of the hordes, united under a single chief. Kazakhs constitute 1. 18 February 2010. Hunting with eagles is a traditional form of falconry found throughout the Eurasian Steppe, practised by ancient Mongolic and Turkic peoples. Keynote Lecture for Internationalism Week. Collaborative Research: Networks, Gender, Culture and the Migration Decision-Making Process: A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia. Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. Ethnically, they are of Turkic descent, and are the second largest Muslim group of Central Asia. and Ph.D. in anthropology from Indiana University and has taught at the University of Iowa and Pitzer College. Late Transition Years (2002-2009) The Kazakhs of Western Mongolia: Transnational Migration from 1990-2008. Discovering a sense of well-being through the revival of Islam: Profiles of Kazakh Imams in western Mongolia. Who are the Mongolian Kazakhs? American Anthropologist 117(2): 257-271.  She is the Past-President of the Central Eurasian Studies Society (2012-15). Globalizations 14(2):32-50. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Pp. Kipchak of Turkic descent, 2.  Selectivity of migration increased during this period as well, reflecting both the increasing complexity as well as increased information flowing between Kazakhstan and Mongolia, leading to fewer new migrants during this period. Her job functions were related to the urban and rural field research, population settlement issues, migration processes and settlement and contemporary urbanization issues of Mongolia at the Institute of Geography-Geoecology. $1,000. In the 19th century an increasing number of Kazakhs along the borders began to plant some crops.  2007. Mobility and Immobility in a Transnational Context: Changing Views of Migration Among the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia. Werner, Cynthia and Celia Emmelhainz. Barcus, Holly. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.  Essentially, three distinct periods of migration are identifiable and correspond with both macro-scale changes such as changes in economic conditions and immigration policies. Fermented mare’s milk (koumiss) and horse flesh were highly esteemed but usually available only to the prosperous. Thus tugan jer has been used primarily in the context of the American Anthropological Association 107th Annual Meeting. Since 1991, Kazakhstan one of three countries to repatriate kinsmen living abroad (the others are Germany and Israel). Europe-Asia Studies: 69(10): 1557-1583. The diet consisted largely of milk products supplemented by mutton. Dzungaria was subjected to mass Kazakh settlement after the defeat of the Dzungars. Kazakh, also spelled Kazak, an Asiatic Turkic-speaking people inhabiting mainly Kazakhstan and the adjacent parts of the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture. Dr. Cynthia Werner; www.cynthiawerner.com. Explore similarities and differences.  She studied issues of migration policy of Kazakhstan and worked as a research assistant with this project from June 2006 and June 2008- 2009. A limited amount of precipitation creates arid, non-arable pasture lands that historically have been utilized for livestock herding. During this period, the quota declined from 3,000 families during the early transition period, to approximately 500 in 1999-2000, jumping again to 2,655 by 2002. Her research focuses on the links between culture, gender, and the economy, with special focus on the region of Central Asia. Land without Fences? 2006 In Sinkiang, however, many nomadic groups remain. Although Mongolian is the official language, the Kazakhs use their own language for everyday communication, known as Kazakh or Qazaqsa. Negotiating Everyday Islam after Socialism: A Study of the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ulgii, Mongolia. 1.  Geographische Rundschau: International Edition 3:4-10. Kazakhs are a proud people, intent on maintaining their culture, religion, and way of life. She now researches scholarly communications, research data management, and librarian professionalization in America and Kazakhstan (updated June 2018). Barcus, H. Transnational Kazakh Migration in Western Mongolia. The unequal burdens of repatriation: A gendered view of the transnational migration of Mongolia’s Kazakh Population. Politically, the Mongolian and Kazakh steppes were controlled by nomadic tribesmen until the late 17th century when they came under the influence of Chinese and Russian empires respectively. Updates? Thirdly, people are not trying to say Kazakhs have nothing to do with Mongol Empire or Genghis Khan/Chinggis Khan. Migration Decision-Making, Culture, and Trans-National Identities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. Hides provided clothing, containers, and thongs; horsehair was braided into rope, while horn was used for ladles and other utensils. Choosing to Stay: (Im)Mobility Decisions Amongst Mongolia’s Ethnic Kazakhs. The Kazakhs are the second most numerous Turkic-speaking people in Central Asia after the Uzbeks. The Kazakhs of Mongolia belong to a larger group of people who live primarily in Kazakstan. Records suggest that in 1905, there were 1370 Kazakh households, increasing to 1,870 households by 1924 (the year Mongolia adopted socialism). The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the area in the 13th century. Their nomadic life was gradually curtailed by the encroachment of settled agriculture on the pasturelands. 2015. DOI: 10.1080/09668136.2017.1401042. 2014. Immobility and the Re-Imaginings of Ethnic Identity among Mongolian Kazakhs in the 21st Century. She currently serves as a board member for the American Center for Mongolian Studies, and on the editorial board of the Journal of Rural Studies (updated June 2018). What benefits does the government of Kazakhstan provide?  During the first period (1991-1996), which was characterized by economic crisis in both Mongolia and Kazakhstan, the government of Kazakhstan passed a series of immigration reforms to assist ethnic Kazakhs in returning to Kazakhstan. Calculate how many people belong to the Kazakh culture. The Kazakhs of western Mongolia are one of the world’s last surviving nomadic cultures. ELLA KELLEHER WRITES — Many are already aware of how the Uyghur people are interned at “reeducation” camps in Xinjiang, the Western province of China. “Modern Nomads: Transnational Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora of Western Mongolia. 2017. An estimated five percent of Mongolian citizens are members of Turkic peoples, primarily Kazakhs and …  By 1989, the Kazakh population grew to approximately 120,000 individuals. Kazakh culture is distinct here: the nomads are Muslim and they speak Kazakh in everyday life, using Mongolian only when they need to communicate with other tribes or groups.  She received her M.A. 2006  Numbering over 100,000 in the 2000 Census, they comprise the largest ethnic minority in Mongolia, although only 4% of the total population. Barcus, Holly. In Mongolia today, when Kazakhs refer to homeland, they use tugan jer to indicate native land and atameken and atajurt12 for ancestral homeland or motherland. and Cynthia Werner. 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Race, Ethnicity and Place Conference, Puerto Rico, October 2012. This was perceived to be one of the most substantive challenges facing new migrants, especially in the current economic climate. The Mongolian Kazakhs 2009 They distinguish themselves from Mongolians by speaking Kazakh and practising Islam; most Mongolians are Buddhist. Barcus, Holly. Mongolia and Kazakhstan living comparison. During World War I and again under Soviet rule, many Kazakhs were killed in repressions or fell victim to famines; still others fled with their herds to Sinkiang in China or to Afghanistan, and the remaining nomads were eventually settled on collective farms. Werner, Cynthia and Holly R. Barcus. Corrections?  Macalester College Geography Department. The annual quota is set for a specific number of “families,” not individuals. 1600 Grand AvenueSaint Paul, MN 55105-1899 USA The Kazakhs are different people from the Mongols in many ways. 2008 With incentives provided by the Kazakhstan government to families for education, many young people move to Kazakhstan for the education benefits. Scythians of Iran descent, (Also Sakas, Sarmatians, and Massagets). International Research and Travel Grant, International Programs, Texas A&M, 2008; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs”, Werner. What benefits does the government of Kazakhstan provide? Admissions, For High There are around 100,000 Kazakhs in Western Mongolia, mostly in the semi autonomous province of Bayan-Ulgii. The Kazakhs of Western Mongolia: Transnational Migration from 1990-2008. Keynote Lecture for Museum Exhibit Opening. From the perspective of potential migrants, increased competition for inclusion in the quota represents an important shift in the perceived benefits and availability of quota benefits.  The Sustainability of Rural Systems: Local and Global Challenges and Opportunities.  These political shifts significantly transformed cultural practices and economic structures within the two countries. During the study period, local schools taught in either Mongolian or Kazakh (this has since changed). She is currently the Department Head in the Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M University (updated June 2018).  Her undergraduate degree is Geographist and Geographical Teacher from Mongolia National University in 2004. The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers. In the past, they were perhaps the most influential of the various Central Asian ethnic groups. Migration Letters 6(1):49-62. Why are the Mongolian Kazakhs migrating to Kazakhstan? Nurshash Shugatay is a teacher in Ulaanbaatar city from Mongolia. Acknowledgement of Organizations Funding the Research: 2008-2010 (updated July 2018). “Collaborative Research: Networks, Gender, Culture and the Migration Decision-Making Process:  A Case Study of the Kazakh Diaspora in Western Mongolia”. Bryan, Texas. Felt made the tent snug inside and out and was used for cloaks. Werner, C., H. R. Barcus, N. Brede*.  One of these migration flows is comprised of Mongolian Kazakhs migrating to and from Kazakhstan during this period. 2013. “Place identity and immobility choices among ethnic minorities: Transitioning landscapes in a transnational community” 21st Colloquium of the Consortium for Sustainable Rural Systems, International Geographical Union. Eagle hunting is a uniquely Kazakh tradition, which also provides them with traditional fox skin clothing. Those within the quota qualify for additional assistance, including housing, transportation of family and goods from origin to destination and a lump sum allowance for each family member.  Nomadic pastoralism has been the primary form of human subsistence for centuries. When the former USSR dissolved, and Kazakhstan declared independence, PRESIDENT Nazarbayev welcomed back the diasporic Kazakh community, including Kazakhs from Mongolia. Contemporary Mongolia: Transitions, Development and Social Transformations.  Asian Ethnicity 11(2):209-228. 20 November 2009. 2015. Today it is practised by Kazakhs and the Kyrgyz in contemporary Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as diasporas in Bayan … The Kazakhstan government during the study period was not putting limits on the number of non-quota migrants who enter Kazakhstan, however, the quota levels themselves fluctuate annually. Wallace Travel and Research Grant. Barcus, H.R.  When the USSR dismantled, 73 million people found themselves living outside the political unit that they viewed as their ethno-national homeland. December. Barcus, H. Invited Lecture: “Why do all the Yurts have Satellite Dishes? Mainstream media propagates that both ethnic Uyghurs…  Some households will move only two times, once in the spring to the summer pastures and again in the fall back to the winter pastures. Results from our interviews suggest that individuals and families who are adapting well to Mongolia’s new economy are less likely to consider moving to Kazakhstan. 2016. Barcus, Holly. Although the majority consider themselves Muslim, a small but growing proportion practice basic Muslim tenets of Namaz and fasting during Ramadan. 25 October 2008. What does it mean to be semi-nomadic?  The nomadic economy is strongly influenced by traditional gender roles – men herd, women cook, care for children and prepare textiles. From the beginning, ethnic Kazakhs had the option of entering Kazakhstan either within or outside of the quota system. 2011. Werner, Cynthia and Holly Barcus. Kazakh nomads have grazed their livestock near the Altai Mountains for hundreds of years. November 19-23, 2008. Invited conference. 6 May 2010.  This is age dependent, however. Cynthia Werner, Mobility, Immobility and Return Migration: The Impact  of Transnational Migration on the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia.  In addition to providing subsidies and paid travel costs, the new program will provide low-interest loans to buy land or housing.  She works in both the rural United States, specifically in Appalachia and the Great Plains, and in western rural Mongolia. 2008. San Francisco, California. Barcus.  Under socialism in Mongolia (1924-1989), the pastoral economy was collectivized and modern education, health care and public infrastructure including social welfare policies were implemented.  Namara is now working toward a master’s degree in geography at the University of British Columbia, where he plans to focus on spatial modeling of anthropogenic changes in grassland ecosystems. Stan Brunn. This has lead to some tension between Kazakhs and Mongolians, and there is a level of discrimination apparent in a minority of people. Barcus, Holly R. and Cynthia Werner. 14-17 November 2008.  While many move with their families, others join extended family relations in Kazakhstan for the duration of their education.  In 2004, Holly Barcus and Cynthia Werner initiated a project in the western aimag of Bayan-Ulgii, Mongolia to better understand the on-going migration of Mongolian Kazakhs between Mongolia and Kazakhstan during the transition period between 1991 and 2010. Other Invited Presentations and Outreach: 2010 Since the mid-1990s, she has conducted fieldwork in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Mongolia on topics that include transnational migration, international tourism development, bride abduction, the impacts of nuclear testing, gift exchange and bribery, and bazaar trade. (updated July 2018).  Like the other programs, this program continues to offer incentives to oralmander for immigration, however, this program targets particular settlement areas, specifically in the northern regions of Kazakhstan. Few realize, however, that ethnic Kazakhs have also been subjected to the same mass extermination and forced labor. Kazakhs definitely have some heritage of some ancient Turkic-speaking tribes that existed when GK was alive. One of the primary analytical and mapping tools that she uses in her research is a Geographic Information System; an invaluable tool for assessing spatial patterns and evaluating the underlying processes and factors that influence change at multiple scales. During the summers of 2006, 2008, and 2009 we conducted interviews in Ulgii and in several rural locations across the province. The Kazakhs migrated seasonally to find pasturage for their livestock, including horses, sheep, goats, cattle, and a few camels. Ethnic Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated to the region by the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: singular: Қазақ, Qazaq,, plural: Қазақтар, Qazaqtar, ; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly inhabit the Ural Mountains and northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also parts of Russia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia and China), the region also known as the Eurasian sub-continent. Geoforum 56:119-128. Migration decision-making, culture, and trans-national identities: A case study of the Mongolian Kazakh diaspora. 8-10 April 2010. Kazakh is the official language of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Barcus, Holly. From wrestlers as wedding entertainment to bona fide eagle hunters, photographer Susan Portnoy captures a world steeped in tradition and virtually untouched by modern times. Most live in Bayan-Olgii Aimag, where they make up 90% of the inhabitants. The governments of each country sought to collective and sedentarize the nomadic populations under socialism. Transnational Identities: Mongolian Kazakhs in the 21st Century. This period also witnessed a rapid and important change in the freedom of movement both within Mongolia and across borders. Invited Lecture. Immigration to Kazakhstan for oralmandar continued to evolve during the middle transition years (1997-2002) with a new legal framework and changing annual quotas. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Barcus. “Modern Nomads: The Kazakhs of Mongolia in the Contemporary World.” Brazos County Museum of Natural History. Teaching about the Geography and Cultures of Asia is the Middle Grades, a development workshop for teachers, sponsored by the Minnesota Humanities Center.  Mongolia is very sparsely settled. The Kazakh population is largely clustered in the far western province of Mongolia, Bayan-Ulgii Aimag, with the second and third largest clusters in Hovd Aimag and Ulaanbaatar. 2008. Invited Lecture.  2009. Where do the Mongolian Kazakhs live? Barcus, H.R. Our interviews and surveys indicate that there are many reasons why some Mongolian Kazakhs choose to stay in Mongolia, rather than to migrate to Kazakhstan. Ethnic Kazakhs number around 100,000 and are the largest minority in Mongolia.  The Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, and is the dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii. Poster Presentation. Notable here were the Mongolian Kazakhs. Transnational Migration, Globalization, and Local Economic Change in Western Mongolia: An Examination of New Rural Development Challenges in the 21st Century. Physiographically, Mongolia and Kazakhstan are largely comprised of grassland steppe, although both countries also contain other eco-regions including deserts, mountains and forests. 2012. “Kazakhstan is my homeland; Mongolia is my fatherland”: Considering the role of place identity and other cultural factors in shaping mobility and immobility decisions in a transnational community” Central Eurasian Studies Society Meeting. Kazakh nomads have grazed their livestock near the Altai Mountains for hundreds of years. 2. Naiman of Mongol descent, (also Khereid, Jalayr, Khongirad, Khatagin), 3. Currently her research is focused on Central Asia and Mongolia-Kazakhstan’s relations in Institute of International Affairs of the MAS. April 2007. Barcus & Brede. Tampa, Florida. “Nomads and Transnational Migration: Reflections on Fieldwork and Community Change in Western Mongolia.  Transnational Identities, Migration, and the Importance of Cultural and Social Ties between Communities: A Case Study of the Mongolian Kazakh Diaspora. Students, Connect with 19th Meeting of the International Geographical Union Commission on Rural Sustainability, Galway, Ireland. About 3,200,000 people live in Mongolia. Mongolian Kazakhs are traditionally semi-nomadic pastoralists, herding sheep, goats, yaks, camels and horses.  While migration flows have fluctuated since 1991, over 71,000 Mongolian Kazakhs have migrated to Kazakhstan in the post-Soviet period. Most Kazakhs are now settled farmers who raise sheep and other livestock and grow crops. 17th Annual Colloquium of the International Geographical Union Commission on the Sustainability of Rural Systems, 2009.  During this time, he analyzed and processed geographic data associated with the project, and also traveled to Mongolia with the research team in May-June 2009. The Kazakhs are the second largest ethnic group in Mongolia after the Khalkhs, with 105,000 people comprising 5% of the population. At the end of the 20th century there were roughly 7,600,000 in Kazakhstan and about 1,200,000 in China (mainly in Sinkiang), with small numbers in Uzbekistan, Russia, and Mongolia. While successful middle-aged business owners and herders are relatively satisfied with life in Mongolia, their children consider attending university in Mongolia, especially Ulaanbaatar, or Kazakhstan. and Cynthia Werner. The Kazakhs of Mongolia are culturally and ethnically different from Mongolians with language and religion as the two primary cultural markers.  Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs. This website provides an overview of our work during the 2004-2010 period and the people who have helped us understand the dynamic relationships between gender, economics, identity, and geo-politics that shape the complex decision-making processes and outcomes of transnational migration in this region. 2009. Stipendiary Fellow, Glasscock Center for Humanities Research, Texas A&M, 2008-09; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs” (Anthropology Department fellow). The Kazakh language belongs to Turkic family of languages, and is the dominant language in Bayan-Ulgii.  Minnesota State University, Geography Department Colloquium. Amangul Shugatai is a researcher at the Department of Regional Studies, Institute of International Affairs at the Mongolian Academy of Science. This article was most recently revised and updated by. Namara Brede (BA Macalester College, 2010) spent two years working with Dr. Barcus as a research assistant for the Mongolian Kazakh Migration Project. Springer Publishers: Netherlands. The Kazakhs believe themselves to be descended from a progenitor who had three sons from whom sprang the main divisions of the Kazakhs: the Great, Middle, and Little hordes (ordas) that occupied the eastern, central, and western parts, respectively, of what became the Kazakh khanate and is now Kazakhstan. 2011. Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Seattle, Washington, April 2011. Before the fall of the USSR, few Mongolian Kazakhs had ever visited the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, but in the post-Soviet context the creation of new nation states and national borders, relaxation of restrictions on movement and opening of borders between east and west, new population movements have emerged. 1863-1890.  Oralman status, entitles migrants to basic types of assistance, such as medical, employment, language and education assistance at both the primary and secondary levels. Celia Emmelhainz is the anthropology and qualitative research librarian at University of California, Berkeley. What is Kazakh eagle hunting is like, and what does a competition entail? In the 19th century, the advance of the Russian Empire troops pushed Kazakhs to neighboring countries. Admissions, International $4,615. Mid-Transition Years (1997-2002) Werner, C, Emmelhainz, C.*, H. Barcus. The vocabulary of Kazakh has been influenced by Arabic, Persian, Mongolian, and Russian.  “Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs.”  Human Geography of Global Issues, GEOG111, February, 2009. Macalester College The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936.  “Implications of Transnational Migration for Mongolian Kazakhs.”  Human Geography of Global Issues, GEOG111, March, 2009. The Kazakhs were traditionally pastoral nomads, dwelling year-round in portable, dome-shaped tents (called gers, or yurts) constructed of dismountable wooden frames covered with felt.  The Kazakh population is predominantly Muslim. Kazakh ethnic group in Mongolia. 2009-10; “Mobility, Immobility, and Transnational Migration among Mongolian Kazakhs” (International Studies Program fellow). Brede, Namara*, Holly R. Barcus, Cynthia Werner. Early Transition Years (1991-1996) Since 2006, we have been assessing the migration situation of Mongolian Kazakhs. 9 March 2010. Most Kazakh Mongolians speak Kazakh and are Muslim; some never learn the Mongolian …  The soum center of this arid and mountainous province is Ulgii, a town of approximately 30,000 people. Program to Enhance Scholarly and Creative Activities Award, Vice President for Research, Texas A&M, 2006; “Returning Home: Gender, Migration and the Kazakh Diaspora in Mongolia”, Werner. Kazakh identity is of medieval origin and was strongly shaped by the foundation of the Kazakh Khanate between 1456 and 1465, when several tribes under the rule of the sultans Zhanibek and Kerey departed from the Khanate of Abu'l-Khayr Khan. Kazakhs from the Kazakh Khanates were among the peoples who moved into the depopulated Dzungaria. While nearly 1 million Mongolians were living in Ulaanbaatar, the remaining 1 million were dispersed across the country.

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